Cognitive Reasoning

Cause and Effect

A situation is presented: There is a rip in a feather pillow, what will probably happen? The user chooses between 4 options that could happen: “The pillowcase cover will fade; The pillowcase will shrink; The feathers will come out; and “The feathers will smell.” The user must choose the most likely option given the circumstances.

Category Discrimination and Reasoning

In the 1st step, a list of words is presented in which all, but one belongs to the same category and the user must identify the one that does not belong. In the 2nd step the user finds the reason the word does not belong. In the 3rd step, the user finds a word that belongs in the first list. The stimuli are graded from simple to complex vocabulary and degree of abstractness. 20 informative lessons are provided.

Category Naming and Completion

Three words are presented belonging to the same category. The first step is to determine the category title that describes the 3 words in the list. Then the user is instructed to find the word in a second list that belongs to the first list. 20 lessons are provided in order of difficulty.

Conditional Statements

This program presents a challenging language task. A hierarchy of conditional statements is presented either visually or auditorily. A simple instruction would be: If sun is in box 12 click rain. Otherwise click clouds. A complex instruction would be: if sun is not in box 3 or rain is in box 20, click clock. Otherwise click car. The program provides stimuli within the following five different lesson types: Simple Conditional, Negative Conditional, Conditional Conjunctive and, Conditional Conjunctive or, Negative/Positive Conditional Conjunctive

Deductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning was designed to facilitate reasoning skills in relatively high level cognitively impaired people. Each problem has a set of rules that describe a class of words. The user is presented with words and asked to determine whether each is a member of the class. For example, in one class, lion and dog belong but desk and tree do not belong. (Obviously the class is animals) The user is asked: Does elephant belong? What about flower? Finally, the user is asked to identify the class.

Form and Function

Form and Function provides users with an opportunity to identify the features: location, function, appearance, color, etc. of various words. Users are given a question about a list of words like: Which ones are found in a hospital? They must identify the appropriate.

Inferential Naming

Users determine the identity of a concealed word. Up to 5 semantic features are available. The 5 semantic features are category, function, location, size, shape or color, and one other prominent feature. The program presents the category of the concealed word. Up to 4 additional semantic clues can be requested. The 6th clue is the first letter of the word and the seventh clue is the word presented with two other words in a multiple-choice paradigm. For each incorrect response, a new clue is provided. Users try to determine the concealed word with as few clues as possible.

Inferential Words

The task is similar to the task seen on the television show: Wheel of Fortune. Users must guess letters to determine the missing word.

Logical Thinking

Users are asked to move a picture to a certain location. Lesson types include: Put baseball on a red square that is not even numbered; Put baseball on a red, even numbered square; If 10 is an odd number then put baseball below box 10. Otherwise put baseball above box 10; If box 18 is blue or box 4 is green than put baseball in the upper-right hand corner. Otherwise put baseball in box 4.; If box 19 is yellow put baseball in the upper right-hand corner. Otherwise put baseball in box 19.; If box 19 is not yellow put baseball in the upper right-hand corner. Otherwise put baseball in box 19.

Problem Solving

A problem is presented like ‘A couple with three children wants to have a quiet weekend together. What is the best way to ensure that?’ The user chooses between a list of four options that could theoretically all be solutions like: Tranquilize the children; Send the children outside to play; Tell the children to watch TV all weekend; and Send the children to a relative’s home. The user chooses the most likely and solution.

Reasons Why

A real-life question is presented like ‘Why do people shake hands?’ The user must choose between a list of 4 answers to the question like: to get germs; to greet others; to feel someone’s pain; and to exercise. The user is instructed to choose the best reason.

Situational Reasoning

A real-life situation is presented like ‘You burn your hand. What is the first thing to do?’ The user chooses between a list of 4 alternatives like: Put on a mitten; Put on a Band Aid; Put your hand under cold water; and Put your hand under hot water. The user is instructed to choose the best alternative.

Things in Common

Two different people, places, or things are presented like a director and producer and the user is asked what they have in common. Users choose from a list of 4 alternatives like: “They make movies”; “They write commercials”; “They oversee construction’; and ‘They work in restaurants”. The user is instructed to choose the best alternative.